Predation Measures

The FCRPS Reasonable and Prudent Alternative includes expanded efforts to reduce juvenile and adult losses from predation by birds, other fish, and marine mammals. Birds, fish, and marine mammal predation are a major cause of mortality for ESA-listed juvenile and adult fish in the Columbia River Basin. Populations of Caspian terns and double-crested cormorants have increased over the past two decades in the Columbia River estuary and in the mid-Columbia region. Northern pikeminnow and bass also prey on juvenile salmon and steelhead. California sea lions and stellar sea lions consume substantial numbers of adult spring Chinook salmon, sturgeon and winter steelhead below Bonneville Dam. Performance standards for predation activities are 1.7 % survival improvement for fall Chinook salmon; 3.1 % survival improvement for other Chinook salmon and 4.4 % survival improvement for steelhead.

For more information on how the FCRPS agencies are implementing these actions, visit