Marine Mammal Stranding Network Publications

The West Coast Marine Mammal Stranding Network literature references for 2005-2016 are provided below. Literature links are available in some cases which are highlighted in blue in the reference. To learn more about the Network and our partners please visit http://www.westcoast.fisheries.noaa.gov/

Baseline Stranding Information

How we are using the information: Baseline for unusual mortality events, Navy sonar incidents and future NRDA, evaluating stranding numbers as estimates of actual mortality, document behavior of live stranded animals, estimate mortality rates for different age classes, complete diagnostic tests for live stranded animals, conduct post-release monitoring of rehabilitated animals to evaluate the success of the rehabilitation process (this data is collected via the rehabilitation disposition form and continued research studies), increase our understanding of the causes of morbidity and mortality in wild marine mammals.

Papers and major findings/recommendations

Barbieri, Michelle M., et al. 2013. Spatial and temporal analysis of killer whale (Orcinus orca) strandings in the North Pacific Ocean and the benefits of a coordinated stranding response protocol. Marine Mammal Science 29.4: E448-E462 doi: 10.1111/mms.12044

Bargu, S., Goldstein, T., Roberts, K., Li, C., Gulland, F. 2012. Pseudo-nitzschia blooms, domoic acid, and related California sea lion strandings in Monterey Bay, California. Marine Mammal Science. 28(2): 237-253.

Bargu, S., Silver, M., Goldstein, T., Roberts, K. and Gulland, F. 2010. Complexity of domoic acid-related sea lion strandings in Monterey Bay, California: foraging patterns, climate events, and toxic blooms. Marine Ecology Progress Series 418: 213-222.

Bowen, L., Miles, A.K., Murray, M., Haulena, M., Tuttle, J., Van Bonn, W., Adams, L., Bodkin, J.L., Ballachey, B., Estes, J., Tinker, M.T., Keister, R., Stott, J.L. 2012. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health. Molecular Ecology Resources. 12: 67-74.

Caretta, J.V., Danil, K., Chivers, S.J., and Weller, D.W. 2016. Recovery rates of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncates) carcasses estimated from stranding and survival rate data. Marine Mammal Science 32(1): 349-362. doi: 10.1111/mms.12264

Cumeras, R., Cheung, W.H.K., Gulland, F., Goley, D., Davis, C.E. 2014. Chemical analysis of whale breath volatiles: A case study for non-invasive field health diagnostics of marine mammals. Metabolites. 2014(4): 790-806.

Danil, K., Chivers, S. J., Henshaw, M. D., Thieleking, J. L., Daniels, R. and St. Leger, J. A. 2010. Cetacean strandings in San Diego County, California, USA: 1851–2008. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 11(2): 163–184.

Dishman, D. L., D. A. Duffield, H. R. Huber, D. M. Lambourn. 2011. Genetic substructure of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) populations along the coasts of Washington and Oregon. Oregon Chapter of The Wildlife Society Annual Meeting, Feb 9-11, Bend, OR. Annual Meeting of the Society for Northwestern Vertebrate Biology, Mar 22-25. Gig Harbor, WA. 2nd International Marine Conservation Congress, 14-18 May. Victoria, B.C. Canada.

Duffield, D., D. D’Alessandro, K. Chandler, J. Hussa, T. Boothe. 2015. The Northern Oregon/Southern Washington marine mammal stranding program. West Coast Marine Mammal Stranding Network Regional Meeting. Mar. 24-25. San Pedro, CA.

Duffield, D.A., Barros, N.B, D’Alessandro, D., Chandler, K., Hussa, J., Boothe, T., Rice, J.M. 2010. Challenges for the Northern Oregon/Southern Washington Marine Mammal Stranding Network. National Marine Animal Health and Stranding Network Conference. April 6-9. Shepherdstown, West Virginia.

Frankfurter, G., DeRango, E., Johnson, S. 2016. Use of acoustic transmitter-equipped remote sedation to aid in tracking and capture of entangled California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 52(3).

Greig, D.J. , Gulland, F.M.D. , Rios, C.A. and Hall, A.J. 2010. Hematology and serum chemistry in stranded and wild-caught harbor seals in central California: reference intervals, predictors of survival, and parameters affecting blood variables. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 46: 1172-1184.

Gulland, F.; Nutter, F.B.; Dixon, K/; Calambokidis, J.; Schorr, G.; Barlow, J.; Rowles, T.; Wilkin, S.; Spradlin, T.; Gage, L.; Mulsow, J.; Reichmuth, C.; Moore, M.; Smith, J.; Folkens, P.; Hanser, S.F.; Jang, S.; Baker, C. S. 2008. Health Assessment, Antibiotic Treatment, and Behavioral Responses to Herding Efforts of a Cow-Calf Pair of Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Sacramento River Delta, California. Aquatic Mammals 34:182-192.

Gulland, F. M. D. and Hall, A. J. 2007. Is marine mammal health deteriorating? Trends in the global reporting of marine mammal disease. EcoHealth 4: 135-150.

Hall, A.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Hammond, J.A., and Schwacke. 2010. Epidemiology, disease, and health assessment. In Marine Mammal Ecology and Conservation: A handbook of techniques. Eds. I.L. Boyd, W.D. Bowen, and S.J. Iverson. New York, Oxford University Press: 144-164.

Huggins, J.L., Oliver, J., Lambourn, D.M, Calambokidis, J., Diehl, B., and Jeffries, S. 2014. Dedicated beach surveys along the Central Washington coast reveal a high proportion of unreported marine mammal strandings. Marine Mammal Science doi: 10.1111/mms.12184.

Huggins et al. 2010. Harbor porpoise stranding trends in Washington State. 2010. National Marine Mammal Stranding Conference, Shepardstown, WA. April 2010.

Lambourn, D., D’Agnese, E., Jeffries, S., Wilkinson, K., Huggins, J., Rice, J., Duffield, D., Smith, W., Grigg, M., Raverty, S. 2015. Return of the Guadalupe fur seal to the Pacific Northwest: Stranding and sightings. 21st Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Dec. 13-18. San Francisco, CA.

Lefebvre, K.A., Quakenbush, L., Frame, E., Burek Huntington, K., Sheffield, G., Stimmelmayr, R., Bryan, A., Kendrick, P., Ziel, H., Goldstein, T., Snyder, J.A., Gelatt, T., Gulland, F., Dickerson, B., Gill, V. 2016. Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment. Harmful Algae. 55(2016): 13- 24.

Neely, B.A., Soper, J.S., Greig, D.J., Carlin, K.P., Favre, E.G., Gulland, F.M.D., Almeida, J.S., Janech, M.G. 2012. Serum profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a diagnostic tool for domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions. Proteome Science. 10:18, doi: 10.1186/1477-5956-10-18.

Norman, S.A., Huggins, J., Carpenter, T.E., Case, J.T., Lambourn, D.M., Rice, J., Calambokidis, J., Gaydon, J., Hanson, B., Duffield, D.A., et al. 2012. The application of GIS and spatiotemporal analyses to investigations of unusual marine mammal strandings and mortality events. Marine Mammal Science 28(3):E251-E266. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00507.x

Raverty, S., Hanson, B., Norman, S., Calambokidis, J., Lambourn, D., Jeffries, S., Hall, A., Osborne, R., and Gaydos, J. 2005. An Overview of Small Cetacean Strandings in the Pacific Northwest, 1999-2004. Society for Marine Mammalogy Annual Meeting, December 2005.

Raverty, S., Norman, S.A., Norberg, B., Barre, L., Gaydos, J.K., Ketten, D., Cramer, S., Fleetwood, M., McLellan, W.A., Pabst, A., Cox, T., Hanson, B., Jeffries, S., and Lambourn, D. 2005. Diagnostic Findings in Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Stranded in Washington State between 2 May and 2 June, 2003, Coincident with the Naval USS Shoup Sonar Deployment. 36th Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Seward, AK, May 2005.

Raverty, S. A., Gaydos, J.K., Osborne, R., Nielsen, K.H., Nielsen, O., Ross, P.S., Lambourn, D.M., Jeffries, S.,and Cameron, C.E. Diagnostic Findings of Stranded and Live Captured Marine Mammals in the Pacific Northwest, 1999 to 2004. National Marine Mammal Stranding Conference, Lansdown, VA, April 2005 and Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Seward, AK, May 2005.

Rice, James M., Duffield, Deborah A., D'Alessandro, Dalin. The Oregon Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Poster presentation given at the West Coast Marine Mammal Stranding Network Regional Meeting, San Pedro, CA March 24-25, 2015.

Rice, J.M., Duffield, D.A., D’Alessandro, D. 2011. Dramatic increase in California sea lion strandings along the Oregon coast in both 2009 and 2010. 19thBiennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Nov. 27- Dec. 2. Tampa Bay, FL.

Simeone, C. A., Gulland, F.M.D, Norris, T., Rowles, T.2015. A systematic review of changes in marine mammal health in North America, 1972-2012: The need for a novel integrated approach. PloS ONE 10(11): e0142105.

Sternberg, M., Gaydos, J.K., Osborne, R.W., Logsdon, M., and Klinger, T. Using shoreline attributes to improve marine mammal stranding response in San Juan County, Washington. National Marine Mammal Stranding Conference, Lansdown, VA, April 2005

Wells, R.S., Fauquier, D.A., Gulland, F.M.D., Townsend, F.I., DiGiovanni, Jr., R.A. 2013. Evaluating postintervention survival of free-ranging odontocete cetaceans. Marine Mammal Science. 29(4): E463-E483

Zagzebski, K.A., Gulland, F.M.D., Haulena, M., Lander, M.E., Greig, D.J. , Gage, L., Hanson, M.B., Yochem, P.K., Stewart, B.S. 2006. Twenty-five years of rehabilitation of odontocetes stranded in central and northern California, 1977 to 2002. Aquatic Mammals 32(3): 334-345.

Anatomy/Physiology

How we are using the information: Advances in integrative anatomic findings, medical treatment, and experience in rehabilitation.

Papers and major findings/recommendations

Aalderink M.T., H.P. Nguyen, P.H. Kass, B. Arzi, and F.J.M. Verstraete. 2015. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus ursinus). Journal of Comparative Pathology 152 (4) 325-334; doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2015.02.002. Epub 2015 Mar 29

Aalderink M.T., H.P. Nguyen, P.H. Kass, B. Arzi, and F.J.M. Verstraete. 2015. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Eastern Pacific Harbour Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii). Journal of Comparative Pathology 152 (4) 335-344; doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2015.02.003 . Epub 2015 Mar 29.

Aldridge, B.M., Bowen, L., Smith, B.R., Antonelis, G.A., Gulland, F., and Stott, J.L. 2006. Paucity of class 1 MHC gene heterogeneity between individuals in the endangered Hawaiian monk seal population. Immunogenetics 58(2-3): 203-215.

Arzi, B., J.N. Winer, P.H. Kass and F.J.M.Verstraete. 2013. Osteoarthritis of the Temporomandibular Joint in Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Journal of Comparative Pathology 149 (4) 486–494; doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.03.009.

Arzi B, D.M. Leale, N.L. Sinai, P.H. Kass, and F.J.M. Verstraete. 2015. The temporomandibular joint of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): Part 2 - osteoarthritic changes. Archives of Oral Biology 60 (1) 216-222; doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.09.005. Epub 2014 Oct 8.

Arzi B, M.K. Murphy, D. M. Leale, N. Vapniarsky-Arzi, and F.J.M. Verstraete. 2015. The temporomandibular joint of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): Part 1 – Characterization in health and disease. Archives of Oral Biology 60 (1) 208-215; doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.09.004 . Epub 2014 Oct 6.

Barbosa, L., Johnson, S.P., Papich, M.G., Gulland, F. 2015. Pharmacokinetics of a single-dose orally administered ciprofloxacin in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 46(2): 266-272.

Bishop, Greg T., Joseph K. Gaydos, Amy Traxler and Stephen Raverty. 2012. A retrospective investigation of pathologic findings in Pacific Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) Stranded in San Juan County, Washington. Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Atlanta, GA, May 2012.

Boessenecker, R.W. 2010. New Records of the Fur Seal Callorhinus (Carnivora: Otariidae) from the Plio-Pleistocene Rio Dell Formation of Northern California and Comments on Otariid Dental Evolution. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32 (2) 454-467; doi: 10.1080/02724634.2011.550362

Boonstra, J.L., Barbosa, L., Van Bonn, W.G., Johnson, S.P., Gulland, F.M.D., Cox, S.K., Martin- Jimenez, T. 2015. Pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride and its metabolite O- Desmethyltramadol following a single, orally administered dose in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 46(3): 476-481.

Buchholtz, E.A. 2007. Modular evolution of the cetacean vertebral column. Evolution & Development 9 (3) 278289; doi: 10.1111/j.1525-142X.2007.00160.x

Buckmaster, P.S., Wen, X., Toyoda, I., Gulland, F.M.D., Van Bonn, W. 2014. Hippocampal neuropathology of domoic acid-induced epilepsy in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Neurology. 522:1691-1706.

Cartwright R, Newton C, West KM, Rice J, Niemeyer M, Burek K, et al. 2016. Tracking the Development of Muscular Myoglobin Stores in Mysticete Calves. PLoS ONE 11(1): e0145893. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145893.

Chivers, S. J., Perryman, W.L., Lynn, M.S., Gerrodette, T., Archer, F.I., Danil, K., Berman-Kowalewski, M. and Dines, J.P. 2015. Comparison of reproductive parameters for populations of eastern North Pacific common dolphins: Delphinus capensis and D. delphis. Marine Mammal Science 32 (1): 57-85 doi: 10.1111/mms.12244 .

Chivers, S.J., Hanson, B., Laake, J., Gearin, P., Muto, M.M., Calambokidis, J., Duffield, D., McGuire, T., Hodder, J., Greig, D., Wheeler, E., Harvey, J., Robertson, K.M., and Hancock, B. 2007. Additional genetic evidence for population structure of Phocoena phocoena off the coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. NMFS- SWFSC Administrative Report LJ-07-08: 16.

Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Naydan, D.K., Lowenstine, L.J. 2009. The normal genital tract of the female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus): cyclic changes in histomorphology and hormone receptor distribution. The Anatomical Record. 292: 1801- 1817.

Cook, P.F., Reichmuth, C., Rouse, A.A., Libby, L.A., Dennison, S.E., Carmichael, O.T., Kruse Elliott, K.T., Bloom, J., Singh, B., Fravel, V.A., Barbosa, L., Stuppino, J.J., Van Bonn, W.G., Gulland, F.M.D., Ranganath, C. 2015.Algal toxin impairs sea lion memory and hippocampal connectivity, with implications for strandings. Science. 350(6267): 1545- 1547.

Cranford, T.W., 2011. Biosonar sources in odontocetes: considering structure and function. Journal of Experimental Biology 214, 1403–1404; doi: 10.1242/jeb.053660

Cranford, T. W., McKenna, M. F., Soldevilla, M. S., Wiggins, S. M., Goldbogen, J. A., Shadwick, R. E., Krysl, P., St. Leger, J. A., and Hildebrand, J. A. 2008. Anatomic geometry of sound transmission and reception in Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris).The Anatomical Record. 291(4), 353-378. doi: 10.1002/ar.20652

Dailey, R.E., Fontaine, C. M., Avery, J. P. 2016. Endocrine response to realimentation in young northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris): Indications for development of fasting adaptation. General and Comparative Endocrinology 235(2016): 130-135.

Danil K, Leger JAS, Dennison S, Quirós YBd, Scadeng M, Nilson E, Beaulieu N. 2014 Clostridium perfringens septicemia in a long-beaked common dolphin Delphinus capensis: an etiology of gas bubble accumulation in cetaceans. Dis Aquat Org 111:183-190. doi: 10.3354/dao02783

De Maio, L., Cook, P., Reichmuth, C., and Gulland, F.M.G. 2016. The Evaluation of Olfaction in Stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and its Relevance to Domoic Acid Toxicosis. In Review National Marine Animal Stranding Conference, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, Sept 5-9th 2016. 19th Biennial Society of Marine Mammalogy Conference Tampa, Florida November 26-December 2, 2011.

Dennison, S.E., Boor, M., Fauquier, D., Van Bonn, W., Greig, D.J. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus patency in neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups in rehabilitation. Aquatic Mammals 37(2): 161-166.

Dennison, S.E., Van Bonn, W., Boor, M., Adams, J., Pussini, N., Spraker, T. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Antemortem diagnosis of a ventricular septal defect in a California sea lion Zalophus californianus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 94: 83-88.

Dennison, S.E., Gulland, F.M.D., and Braselton, W.E. 2010. Standardized protocols for plasma clearance of iohexol are not appropriate for determination of glomerular filtration rates in anesthetized California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 4:144-147

Dennison, S.E., Forrest, L., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. Normal thoracic radiographic anatomy of immature California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and immature northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Aquatic Mammals. 35 (1): 36-42.

Dennison, S., Haulena, M., Williams, C., D., John, Yandell, B. S., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Determination of a sedative protocol for use in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with neurologic abnormalities undergoing electroencephalographic examination. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 39(4):542-547.

Dennison, S. E., and Schwarz, T. 2008. Computed tomographic imaging of the normal immature California sea lion head (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 49(6): 557-563.

Dennison, S., Gulland, F., Haulena, M., De Morais, H., and Colegrove, K. 2007. Urate nephrolithiasis in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 38(1): 114-120.

Dunkin, R., McLellan, W.A, Blum, J.E., Pabst, D.A., 2010. The Buoyancy of the Integument of Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (T. truncatus): Effects of growth, reproduction and nutritional state. Marine Mammal Science 26(3) pgs 572-587. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00353.x

Dunkin, R., McLellan, W.A., Blum, J.E., Pabst, D.A. 2005. Ontogenetic Changes in the Thermal Properties of Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin (T. truncatus) Blubber. Journal of Experimental Biology. 208 (8), pgs 1469-1480. Cover Article. doi: 10.1242/jeb.01559

Fahlman, A., Loring, S. H., Johnson, S.P., Haulena, M., Trites, A.W., Fravel, V.A., Van Bonn, W.G. 2014.Inflation and deflation pressure-volume loops in anesthetized pinnipeds confirms compliant chest and lungs. Frontiers in Physiology. 5(433).

Fauquier, D.A., Mazet, J.A.K., Gulland, F.M.D., Spraker, T.R., and Christopher, M.M. 2008. Distribution of tissue enzymes in three species of pinnipeds. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(1): 1-5.

Freeman, K.S., Thomasy, S.M., Stanley, S.D., Van Bonn, W., Gulland, F., Friedlaender, A.S., Maggs, D.J. 2013. Population pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in the tears and plasma of elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) following oral drug administration. JAVMA. 243(8): 1-9.

Gaydos, J. K., D. Lambourn, F. M. D. Gulland, W. Van Bonn, A. Traxler and S. Raverty. 2012. Urolithiasis in free-ranging harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi). International Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association, Lyon, France, July 2012 and Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Atlanta, GA, May 2012

Gaydos, J. K., A. Traxler, S. Jeffries and S. Raverty. Emaciation/Malnutrition Syndrome in Stranded Harbor Seal Pups from San Juan County, Washington. 2009 International Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association, Blaine, WA, August 2009.

Gill, S., Goldstein, T., Situ, D., Zabka, T.S., Gulland, F.M.D., and Mueller, R.W. 2010. Cloning and characterization of glutamate receptors in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Marine Drugs 8(5):1637-1649.

Greene, R., Van Bonn, W.G., Dennison, S.E., Greig, D.J., Gulland, F.M.D. 2015. Laparoscopic gastropexy for correction of a hiatal hernia in a Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 46(2): 414- 416.

Green, J.A., Haulena, M., Boyd, I.L., Calkins, D., Gulland, F. Woakes, A.J. & Butler, P.J. 2009. Trial implantation of heart rate data loggers in pinnipeds. Journal of Wildlife Management. 73: 115-121.

Greig, D.J., Mashburn, K.L., Rutishauser, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Williams, T.M., and Atkinson, S. 2007. Seasonal changes in circulating progesterone and estrogen concentrations in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Mammalogy 88(1): 67-72.

Groner, M., Breyta, R., Dobson, A., Friedman, C. S., Froelich, B., Garren, M., Gulland, F., Maynard, J., Weil, E., & Harvell, D. 2015. Emergency response for marine diseases. Science, 347(6227): 1210.

Gulland, F.M.D., Hall, A.J., Greig, D.J., Frame, E.R., Colegrove, K.M., Booth, R.K.N., Wasser, S.K., Scott-Moncrieff, J.C.R. 2012. Evaluation of circulating eosinophil count and adrenal gland function in California sea lions naturally exposed to domoic acid. JAVMA. 241(7): 943-949.

Gutierrez, J., Simeone, C., Gulland, F., Johnson, S. 2016.Development of retrobulbar and auriculopalpebral nerve blocks in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 47(1): 236-243.

Horning, M., Haulena, M., Toumi, P. A., and Mellish, J.E. 2008. Intraperitoneal implantation of life-long telemetry transmitters in otariids. BMC Veterinary Research. 4:51

Johnston, C., DeMere, T. A., Berta, A., Yonas, J. and St. Leger, J. 2010. Observations on the musculoskeletal anatomy of the head of a neonate gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus). Marine Mammal Science. 26(1) 186-194. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00305.x

Kellar, Nicholas M., Catelani, Krista N., Robbins, Michelle N., Trego, Marisa L., Allen, Camryn D., Danil, Kerri and Chivers, Susan J. 2015. Blubber Cortisol: A Potential Tool for Assessing Stress Response in Free-Ranging Dolphins without Effects due to Sampling. PloS one 10, no. 2:e0115257. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115257

Kellar, N.M., Trego, M.L., Marks, C.I., Chivers, S.J., Danil, K. and Archer, F.I. 2009. Blubber testosterone: A potential marker of male reproductive status in short- beaked common dolphins. Marine Mammal Science 25(3):507-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2009.00291.x

Law, C.J., V. Venkatram, and R.S. Mehta. 2016. Sexual dimorphism in craniomandibular morphology of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Journal of Mammalogy, 8 September 2016[Epub ahead of print]; doi: 10.1093/jmammal/gyw148

Lefebvre, K.A., Frame, E.R., Gulland, F., Hansen, J.D., Kendrick, P.S., Beyer, R.P., Bammler, T.K., Farin, F.M., Hiolski, E.M., Smith, D.R., Marcinek, D.J. 2012. A novel antibody- based biomarker for chronic algal toxin exposure and sub-acute neurotoxicity. PLoS ONE. 7(5): e36213. doi: .

Levin, M., Joshi,D. Draghi A., Gulland, F. M., Jessup, D., and De Guise, S. 2010. Immunomodulatory effects upon in vivo exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46:541- 550.

MacLean, R.A., Imai, D., Dold, C., Haulena, M, and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Persistent right aortic arch and cribiform plate aplasia in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44(22): 499-504. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-44.2.499

Madl, J.E., Duncan, C.G., Stanhill, J.E., Tai, P.Y., Spraker, T.R., Gulland, F.M. 2013. Oxidative stress and redistribution of glutamine synthetase in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with domoic acid toxicosis. J. Comp. Path.

McDonald M, N. Vapniarsky-Arzi, F.J.M. Verstraete, C. Staszyk, D.M. Leale, K.D. Woolard, and B. Arzi. 2015. Characterization of the temporomandibular joint of the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus). Archives of Oral Biology 60 (4) 582-592; doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2015.01.005

McKenna, M. F., J. A. Goldbogen, J. St. Leger; J. A. Hildebrand, and T. W. Cranford. 2007. Evaluation of postmortem changes in tissue structure in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Anatomical Record: Advances In Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 290(8):1023-1032. doi: 10.1002/ar.20565

Meegan, J., Collard, W.T., Grover, G.S., Pussini, N., Van Bonn, W.G., Gulland, F.M.D. 2013. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofurcrystalline-free acid (exceed sterile suspension®) administered via intramuscular injection in wild California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 44(3): 714-720.

Molter, C.M., Barbosa, L., Johnson, S., Knych, H.K., Chinnadurai, S.K., Wack, R.F. 2015. Pharmacokinetics of a single subcutaneous dose of sustained release buprenorphine in Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 46(1): 52-61.

Montie, E.W., Wheeler, E., Pussini, N., Battey, T.W.K., Van Bon, W., and Gulland, F. 2012. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals that brain atrophy is more severe in older California sea lions with domoic acid toxicosis. Harmful Algae, 10.1016/j.hal.2012.07.004.

Montie, E.W., Wheeler, E., Pussini, N., Battey, T.W.K., Barakos, J., Dennison, S., Colegrove, K. and Gulland, F. 2010. Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 91(3): 243-256.

Montie, E.W., Pussini, N., Schneider, G.E., Battey, T.W.K., Dennison, S., Barakos, J. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. Neuroanatomy and volumes of brain structures of a live California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) from magnetic resonance images . The Anatomical Record. 292:1523-1547.

Mulsow, J., Reichmuth, C., Gulland, F., Rosen, D.A.S., and Finneran, J.J. 2011. Aerial audiograms of several California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) measured using single and multiple simultaneous auditory steady- state response methods.Journal of Experimental Biology 214(7):1138-1147.

Neely, B.A., Ferrante, J.A., Chaves, J.M., Soper, J.L., Almeida, J.S., Arthur, J.M.., Gulland, F.M.D., Janech, M.G. 2015. Proteomic analysis of plasma from California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) reveals apolipoprotein E as a candidate biomarker of chronic domoic acid toxicosis. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0123295.

Neely, B. A., Soper, J. L., Gulland, F., Bell, P. D., Kindy, M., Arthur, J. M., & Janech, M. G. 2015. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with domoic acid toxicosis identifies proteins associated with neurodegeneration. Proteomics. 2015, 15, 4051–4063.

Noren, S. R, Noren, D.P, and Gaydos, J.K., 2014. Living in the Fast Lane: Rapid development of the locomotor muscle in immature harbor porpoises (Phocoeana phocoena). Journal of Comparative Physiology – B. DOI 10.1007/s00360-014-0854-8

Nuckton, T. J., Simeone, C. A., Phelps, R. T. 2015. California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus) and Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) Bites and Contact Abrasions in Open-Water Swimmers: A Series of 11 Cases. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 26(4): 497- 508.

Petrauskas, L., Atkinson, S., Gulland, F., Mellish, J., and Horning, M. 2008. Monitoring glucocorticoid response to rehabilitation and research procedures in California and Steller sea lions. Journal of Experimental Zoology 309A: 73-82.

Racicot, R.A. and A. Berta. 2013. Comparative Morphology of Porpoise (Cetacea:Phocoenidae) Pterygoid Sinuses: Phylogenetic and Functional Implications. Journal of Morphology 274 (1) 49-62; doi: 10.1002/jmor.20075 .

Raverty, S. A., Spavin, L., Cottrell, P., Ford, J., Hall, A., Gaydos, J., Haulena, M., and Ivančić, Baseline Stranding InformationM. 2011. Gas Bubble disease in stranded harbor porpoises. Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Las Vegas, NV, May 2011.

Raverty, S., Leslie, A.M., Zabek, E., Weese J.S., and Gaydos, J. 2011. Duel Parapoxviral and Methacillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a harbor seal pup (Phoca vitulina) in a Washington State Rehabilitation Center. Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Las Vegas, NV, May 2011.

Richmond, J.P., Norris, T., and Zinn, S.A. 2010. Re-alimentation in harbor seal pups: Effects on the somatotropic axis and growth rate. General and Comparative Endocrinology 1 65:286-292.

Sarran, D., Greig, D.J., Rios, C.A., Zabka, T.S., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Evaluation of aqueous humor as a surrogate for serum biochemistry in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Aquatic Mammals 34(2): 157-165.

Sinai, N.L., R.H. Dadaian, P.H. Kass and F.J.M.Verstraete. 2014. Dental Pathology of the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Pathology 151 (1) 113-121; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2014.02.004

St. Leger J, Danil K, Dennison S, Scadeng M, Bernaldo de Quirós YM, Fernandez A, Cranford T, Wilkin S, Rowles T. 2011 Pathology of Barotrauma in Long-beaked Common Dolphins (Delphinus capensis). In: Proc 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals.

Trego ML, Kellar NM, Danil K. 2013. Validation of Blubber Progesterone Concentrations for Pregnancy Determination in Three Dolphin Species and a Porpoise. PLOS ONE 8:e69709. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069709

Van Bonn, W., Dennison, S., Cook, P., Fahlman, A. 2013. Gas bubble disease in the brain of a living California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Frontiers in Physiology. 4 (5): 1-6.

Venn-Watson, S., Rivera, Wells, R. S., Fougeres, E. M., Cooper, A. G., Stevens, R. O., Brodsky,M., Lingenfelser, R., Dold, C. and Douglas, D. C. 2013. Movements and dive patterns of short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) released from a mass stranding in the Florida Keys. Aquatic Mammals. 39(1): 61-72. doi: 10.1578/AM.39.1.2013.61

Winer, J.N., Liong, S.M. and Verstraete, F.J.M. 2012. The Dental Pathology of Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Journal of Comparative Pathology 149 (2-3) 346-355; doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2012.11.243

Yamato, M., Khidas, K., Pyenson, N., Fordyce, R.E., and J.G. Mead. 2016. Extensively remodeled, fractured cetacean tympanic bullae show that whales can survive traumatic injury to the ears, Journal of Anatomy 228 (1) 125-136; doi: 10.1111/joa.12385 . Epub 2015 Sep 22

Yochem, P.K., Gulland, F., Stewart, B.S., Haulena, M., Mazet, J., and Boyce, W.M. 2008. Thyroid function testing in elephant seals in health and disease. General and Comparative Endocrinology 155(3): 635-640.

Zabka, T. S., T. Goldstein, C. Cross, R. W. Mueller, C. Kreuder-Johnson, S. Gill, and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. Characterization of a degenerative cardiomyopathy associated with domoic acid toxicity in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).Veterinary Pathology. 46: 105-119.

Diseases

How we are using the information: develop safety procedures for stranding handbook, fulfill state requirements for reportable diseases, target and support high priority disease testing with histopathology contract, baseline information on disease prevalence to track changes due to climate change, improve diagnostic tests for a more complete evaluation of tissue, blood, and other samples; increase understanding of the causes of morbidity and mortality in wild marine mammals; and the ability to screen animals to examine the prevalence of diseases in marine mammal populations that include zoonotic disease concerns for humans.

Papers and major findings/recommendations

Acevedo-Whitehouse, K., Spraker, T.R., Lyons, E., Melin, S.R., Gulland, F., Delong R.L., and Amos, W. 2006. Contrasting effects of heterozygosity on survival and hookworm resistance in California sea lion pups. Molecular Ecology 15(7): 1973-1982.

Aguirre, A.A., Keefe, T.J., Reif, J.S., Kashinsky, L., Yochem, P.K., Saliki, J.T., Stott, J.L., Goldstein, T., Dubey, J.P., Braun, R., and Antonelis, G. 2007. Infectious disease monitoring of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(2): 229-241.

Barbosa, Lorraine, et al. 2015. A novel Sarcocystis neurona genotype XIII is associated with severe encephalitis in an unexpectedly broad range of marine mammals from the northeastern Pacific Ocean. International journal for parasitology doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2015.02.013

Bejarano, A.C., Van Dolah, F.M., Gulland, F.M., Rowles, T.K., and Schwacke, L.H. 2008. Production and toxicity of the marine biotoxin domoic acid and its effects on wildlife: a review. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 14: 544-567.

Bejarano, A. C., Gulland, F. M., Goldstein, T., St. Leger, J., Hunter, M., Schwacke, L. H., Van Dolah, F. M. and Rowles, T.K. 2008. Demographics and spatio-temporal signature of the biotoxin domoic acid in California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) stranding records. Marine Mammal Science. 24(4): 899-912. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2008.00224.x

Bejarano, A.C., Van Dolah, F.M., Gulland, F.M., and Schwacke, L. 2007. Exposure assessment of the biotoxin domoic acid in California sea lions: application of a bioenergetic model. Marine Ecology Progress Series 345: 293-304.

Boyce, W.M., Mena. I., Yochem, P.K., Gulland, F. MD, Garcia-Sastre, A., Moreno, N., Perez, D.R., Gonzalez-Reiche, A.S., Stewart, B.S. 2013.Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in marine mammals in California. Emerging Microbes and Infections. 2013(2). doi: 10.1038/emi.2013.40

Brodie, E.C., Gulland, F.M. D., Greig, D.J., Hunter, M., Jaakola, J., St Leger, J., Leighfield, T.A., and Van Dolah, F.M. 2006. Domoic acid causes reproductive failure in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).Marine Mammal Science 22(3): 700-707.

Browning, H.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Hammond, J. A., Colegrove, K.M., Hall, A. J. 2015. Common cancer in a wild animal: the California sea lion (Zalophus califonianus) as an emerging model for carcinogenesis. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B. 370: 20140228 .

Browning, H.M., Acevedo-Whitehouse K., Gulland, F.M.D., Hall, A.J., Finlayson, J, Dagleish, M.P., Billington, K.J., Colegrove, K, Hammond J.A. 2014. Evidence for a genetic basis of urogenital carcinoma in the wild California sea lion. Proc. R. Soc. B 281: 20140240.

Buckles, E.L., Lowenstine, L.J., DeLong, R.L., Melin, S.R., Vittore, R.K., Wong, H.-N., Ross, G.L., St Leger, J.A., Greig, D.J., Duerr, R.S., Gulland, F.M.D., and Stott, J.L. 2007. Age- prevalence of otarine herpesvirus-1, a tumor-associated virus, and possibility of its sexual transmission in California sea lions. Veterinary Microbiology 120: 1-8.

Buckles, E.L., Lowenstine, L.J., Funke, C., Vittore, R.K., Wong, H-N., St Leger, J.A., Greig D.J., Duerr, R.S., Gulland, F.M.D., and Stott, J.L. 2006. Otarine herpesvirus-1, not papillomavirus, is associated with endemic tumours in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Pathology 135(4): 183-189.

Buckles, E.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Aldridge, B.M., Gelatt, T.S., Ross, P.S., Haulena, M., and Lowenstein, L. J. 2006. Fetus in fetu in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi): histopathologic, genetic, and toxicologic analysis. Veterinary Pathology 43(4): 541-544

Cameron, Caroline E., et al. Detection of pathogenic Leptospira bacteria in pinniped populations via PCR and identification of a source of transmission for zoonotic leptospirosis in the marine environment. Journal of clinical microbiology 46.5 (2008): 1728-1733. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02022-07

Carlson-Bremer, D., Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Conrad, P.A., Mazet, J.A.K., Johnson, C.K. 2015. Epidemiology and pathology of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Wildlife Disease 51(2).

Carlson-Bremer, D.P., Gulland, F.M.D., Johnson, C.K., Colegrove, K.M., and Van Bonn, W.G. 2012. Diagnosis and treatment of Sarcocystis neurona-induced myositis in a free- ranging California sea lion. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 240(3): 324-328.

Carlson-Bremer, D., Johnson, C.K., Miller, R.H., Gulland, F.M.D., Conrad, P.A., Wasmuth, J.D., Colegrove, K.M., Grigg, M.E. 2012. Identification of two novel coccidian species shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Parasitology 98(2): 347-354.

Colegrove, K., Grigg, M.E., Carlson-Bremer, D., Miller, R.H., Gulland, F.M. Ferguson, D.J., Rejmanek, D., Barr, B.C., Nordhausen, R., Melli, A.C. and Conrad, P.A. 2011. Discovery of three novel coccidian parasites infecting California sea lions (Zalophus Californianus) with evidence of sexual replication and interspecies pathogenicity. Journal of Parasitology 97(5): 868-877.

Colegrove, K. M., St. Leger, J. A., Raverty, S., Jang, S., Berman-Kowalewski, M. and Gaydos, J. K. 2010. Salmonella newport omphaloarteritis in a stranded killer whale (Orcinus orca) neonate. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 46(4): 1300-1304. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-46.4.1300

Colegrove, K.M., Wellehan Jr, J.F.X., Rivera, R., Moore, P.F., Gulland, F.M.D., Lowenstine, L.J., Nordhausen, R.W. and Nollens, H.H. 2010. Polyomavirus infection in a free-ranging California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with intestinal T-cell lymphoma. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22(4):628-32.

Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Naydan, D.K., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2009. Tumor morphology and immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, p53, and Ki67 in urogenital carcinomas of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Pathology. 46: 642-655.

Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., Harr K., Naydan, D.K., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2009. Pathological features of amyloidosis in stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Pathology. 140: 105-112 .

Cook, P., Reichmuth, C., Gulland, F. 2011. Rapid behavioural diagnosis of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions. Biology Letters, doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0127

Cortes-Hinojosa, G., Gulland, F.M.D., DeLong, R., Gelatt, T., Archer, L., Wellehan Jr., J.F.X. 2016. A novel gammaherpesvirus in Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) is closely related to the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) carcinoma-associated otarine herpesvirus-1. Journal of Wildlife Disease. 52(1): 88-95.

Dailey, M.D. 2009. A new species of Parafilaroides (Nematoda: filaroididae) in three species of fur seals (Carnivora: otariidae) from the southern hemisphere.The Journal of Parasitology. 95(1): 156-159.

Duigan, P.J., Van Bressem, M., Baker, J.D., Barbieri, M., Colegrove, K.M., De Guise, S., de Swart, R.L., Di Guardo, G., Dobson, A., Duprex, W. P., Early, G., Fauquier, D., Goldstein, T., Goodman, S.J., Grenfell, B., Groch, K.R., Gulland, F., Hall, A., Jensen, B.A., Lamy, K., Matassa, K.A., Mazzariol, S., Morris, S.E., Nielsen, O., Rotstein, D., Rowles, T.K., Saliki, J.T., Seibert, U., Waltzek, T., Wellehan, J.F.X. 2014. Phocine distemper virus: Current knowledge and future directions. Viruses 2014, 6: 5093-5134.

Fahsbender, E., Rosario, K., Cannon, J.P., Gulland, F., Dishaw, L.J., Mya Breibart. 2015. Development of a serological assay for the sea lion (Zalophus califonianus) anellovirus, ZcAV. Scientific Reports. 5: 9637

Fravel, V., Van Bonn, W., Rios, C., and Gulland, F. 2011. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). Veterinary Record 10.1136/vr.d4199.

Gaydos, J. K., Lambourn, D.A., Jeffries, S., Garner, M., Ewalt, D., Rhyan, J., and Raverty, S. Brucella marina en la foca común(Phoca vitulina) del Estato de Washington, Estados Unidos. International Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association, Puerto Iguazu, Argentina, June 2010.

Gaydos, J. K. Zoonotic Diseases of Marine Mammals. Risk to marine mammal stranding network participants. Invited Presentation – Northwest Regional Marine Mammal Stranding Network Meeting, Seattle, WA, September 2008.

Gaydos, JK, Lambourn, D., Lockwood, S., Jeffries, S., Ewalt, D., Garner, M., Sidor, I. and Raverty, S. 2007. Endemic Marine Brucella sp. Infection in Harbor Seals: Is there Human Risk? 45th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America, San Diego, CA, October 2007.

Gaydos, J. K. Zoonotic Diseases of Marine Mammals. Invited Presentation - Zoonotic and Vector-borne Disease: current and emerging issues, Seattle, WA, March 2006.

Gibson, Amanda K., et al. Polyparasitism is Associated with Increased Disease Severity inToxoplasma gondii-Infected Marine Sentinel Species. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 5.5 (2011): e1142. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001142

Girard, Y.A., Johnson, C.K., Fritz, H.M., Shapiro, K., Packham, A.E., Melli, A. C., Carlson, Bremer, D., Gulland, F., Rejmanek, D., Conrad, P.A. 2016. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife. 5(2016): 5-16.

Goldstein, T., Colegrove, K.M., Hanson, M., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Isolation of a novel adenovirus from California sea lions Zalophus californianus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 94: 243-248.

Goldstein, T., Zabka, T.S., DeLong, R.L., Wheeler, E.A., Ylitalo, G., Bargu, S., Silver, M., Leighfield, T., Van Dolah, F., Langlois, G., Sidor, I., Dunn, J.L., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. The role of domoic acid in abortion and premature parturition of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) on San Miguel Island, California. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 45(1): 91-108.

Goldstein, T., Mazet, J.A.K., Zabka, T.S., Langlois, G., Colegrove, K.M., Silver, M., Bargu Ates, S., Van Dolah, F., Leighfield, T., Conrad, P.A., Barakos, J., Williams, D.C., Dennison, S., Haulena, M.A, and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Novel symptomatology and changing epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): an increasing risk to marine mammal health.Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275: 267- 276.

Goldstein, T., Lowenstine, L. J., Lipscomb, T.P., Mazet, J.A.K., Novak, J., Stott, J.L., and Gulland, F.M.D. Infection with a novel gammaherpesvirus in northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris ). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(4): 830-835.

Goldstein, T., Gulland, F.M.D., Braun, R.C., Antonelis, G.A., Kashinsky, L., Rowles, T.K., Mazet, J.A.K., Dalton, L.M., Aldridge, B.M., and Stott, J.L. 2006. Molecular identification of a novel gamma herpesvirus in the endangered Hawaiian monk seal ( Monachus schauinslandi ). Marine Mammal Science 22(2): 465-471.

Greig, D.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Smith, W.A., Conrad, W.A., Field, C.L., Fleetwood, M., Harvey, J.T., Ip, H.S., Jang, S., Packham, A., Wheeler, E., Hall, A.J. 2014. Surveillance for zoonotic and selected pathogens in harbor seals Phoca vitulina from central California. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 111:93-106.

Hansen, M.J., Bertelsen, M.F., Delaney, M.A., Fravel, V.A., Gulland, F., Bojesen, A.M. 2013. Otariodibacter oris and Bisgaardia genomospecies 1 isolated from infections in pinnipeds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 49(3): 661-665.

Haulena, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Lawrence, J.A. , Fauquier, D.A., Jang, S., Aldridge, B., Spraker, T., Thomas, L.C., Brown, D.R., Wendland, L., and Davidson, M.K. 2006. Lesions associated with a novel mycoplasma sp. in California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) undergoing rehabilitation. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(1): 40-45.

Himworth, C. G., et al. 2010. Pathology and epidemiology of phocid herpesvirus-1 in wild and rehabilitating harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) in the northeastern Pacific. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46.3: 1046-1051. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-46.3.1046 International Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association, Blaine, Washington, August 2009

Huckabone, S.E., Gulland, F.M.D., Johnson, S., Colegrove, K., Dodd, E.M., Pappagianis, D., Dunkin, R.C., Casper, D., Carlson, E.L., Sykes, J.E., Meyer, W., and Miller, M.A. 2015. Coccidioidomycosis and other systemic mycosis of marine mammals stranding along the Central California, USA coast: 1998-2012 . Journal of Wildlife Diseases . 51(2):295- 308.

Hughes, S.N., Greig, D.J., Miller, W.A., Bryne, B.A., Gulland, F.M.D., Harvey, J.T., 2013. Dynamics ofVibrio with virulence genes detected in pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California: implications for marine mammal health. Microbial Ecology. 65 (2)

Hunt, T.D., Ziccardi, M.H., Gulland, F.M.D., Yochem, P.K., Hird, D.W., Rowles, T., and Mazet, J.A.K. 2008. Health risks for marine mammal workers. Disease of Aquatic Organisms 81: 81-92.

Jang, S., Wheeler, L., Carey, R.B., Jensen, B., Crandall, C.M., Schrader, K.N., Jessup, D., Colegrove, K., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2010. Pleuritis and suppurative pneumonia associated with a hypermucoviscosity phenotype of Klebsiella pneumoniae in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Microbiology 141:174-177.

Johnson, S., Lowenstine, L., Gulland, F. , Jang, S., Imai, D., Almy, F., DeLong, R., and Gardner, I. 2006. Aerobic bacterial flora of the vagina and prepuce of California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) and investigation of associations with urogenital carcinoma. Veterinary Microbiology 114: 94-103.

Kersh, Gilbert J., et al. 2012. Coxiella burnetii Infection of Marine Mammals in the Pacific Northwest, 1997-2010. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48.1: 201-206. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-48.1.201

Kersh, Gilbert, J., et al. 2010. Coxiella burnetii Infection of a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) Found in Washington State. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 48.9: 3428-3431. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00758-10

Kirkley, K.S., Madl, J.E., Duncan, C., Gulland, F.M., Tjalkens, R.B. 2014. Domoic acid-induced seizures in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are associated with neuroinflammatory brain injury. Aquatic Toxicology. 156(2014): 259-268.

Koutsos, E. A., Schmitt, T., Colitz, C. M. and Mazzaro, L. 2013. Absorption and ocular deposition of dietary lutein in marine mammals. Zoo Biology 32(3): 316-323. doi: 10.1002/zoo.21033

Lambourn, Dyanna M., et al. 2013. Brucella pinnipedialis infections in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) from Washington State, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 49.4: 802-815. doi: 10.7589/2012-05-137

Lambourn, Dyanna M., et al. 2006. Primary Infectious Disease Concerns in Pinnipeds of Washington for 2004. National Marine Mammal Stranding Conference, Lansdown, VA, April 2005.

Lefebvre, K.A., Robertson, A., Frame, E.R., Colegrove, K.M., Nance, S., Baugh, K.A., Weidenhoft, H., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2010. Clinical signs and histopathology associated with domoic acid poisoning in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and comparison of toxin detection methods. Harmful Algae. 9:374-383.

Lloyd-Smith, J. O., Greig, D. J., Hietala, S., Ghneim, G. S., Palmer, L., St Leger, J., Grenfell, B.T. and Gulland, F. M. D. 2007. Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species? BMC Infectious Diseases. 7(1): 125. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-7-125

Mancia, A., Ryan, J.C., Chapman, R.W., Wu, Q., Warr, G.W., Gulland, F.M.D., and Van Dolah, F.M. 2012. Health status, infection and disease in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) studied using a canine microarray platform and machine-learning approaches. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 36: 629-637.

Maness, H. T. D., Nollens, H. H., Jensen, E. D., Goldstein, T., LaMere, S., Childress, A., Sykes, J., St. Leger, J.,Lacave, G., Latson, F. E. and Wellehan, J. F. X. 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of marine mammal herpesviruses.Veterinary Microbiology. 149(1-2): 23-29. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.09.035

McHuron, E.A., Greig, D.J., Colegrove, K.M., Fleetwood, M., Spraker, T.R., Gulland, F.M.D., Harvey, J.T., Lefebvre, K.A., Frame, E.R. 2013. Domoic acid exposure and associated clinical signs and histopathology in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii). Harmful Algae. 23 (2013): 28-33.

McLeland, S., Duncan, C., Spraker, T., Wheeler, E., Lockhart, S.R., Gulland, F. 2012. Cryptococcus albidus infection in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Wildlife Disease. 48(4): 1030-1034.

Mendoza, L., Belone, A. F. F., Vilela, R., Rehtanz, M., Bossart, G. D., Reif, J. S., Fair, P. A., Durden, W. N., St. Leger, J., Travassos, L. R. and Rosa, P. S. 2008. Use of sera from humans and dolphins with lacaziosis and sera from experimentally infected mice for western blot analyses of lacazia loboi antigens. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15(1): 164-167. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00201-07

Miller, M.A., Conrad, P.A., Harris, M., Hatfield, B., Langlois, G., Jessup, D.A., Magargal, S.L., Packham, A.E., Toy-Choutka, S., Melli, A.C., Murray, M.A., Gulland, F.M., and Grigg, M.E. 2010. A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. Veterinary Parasitology 172(3-4): 183-94.

Ng, T.F.F., Wheeler, E., Greig, D., Waltzek, T.B., Gulland, F. and Breitbart, M. 2011. Metagenomic identification of a novel anellovirus in Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsii) lung samples and its detection in samples from multiple years. Journal of General Virology 92(6):1318-1323.

Ng, T. F. F., Suedmeyer, W.K., Wheeler, E., Gulland, F., and Breitbart, M. 2009. Novel anellovirus discovered from a mortality event of captive California sea lions. Journal of General Virology. 90:1256-1261.

Nollens, H. H., Wellehan, J. F. X., Archer, L., Lowenstine, L. J., and Gulland, F. M. D. 2010. Detection of a respiratory coronavirus from tissues archived during a pneumonia epizootic in free-ranging Pacific harbor seals Phoca vitulina richardsii. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 90(2): 113-120. doi: 10.3354/dao02190

Nollens, H.H., Palacios, G., Wellehan, J.F.X., Raverty, S., Bussetti, A.V., Hui, J., Savji, N., Lambourn, D., Celone, C., Hutchison, S., Calisher, C.H., Nielsen, O. and Lipkin, I. 2011. Discovery of an orthoreovirus in the aborted fetus of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Journal of General Virology 92: 2558-2565.

Nollens, H.H., Rivera, R., Robles-Sikisaka, R., Hoffman, E.M., Stacy, B.A., Jensen, E.D., and Wellehan, J.F.X. 2011. Characterization of a novel papillomavirus species (ZcPV1) from two California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Microbiology doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2011.09.027.

Nollens, H.H., Wellehan, J.F. Jr, Rivera, R., Archer, L.L., Benham, C., Muller, J.K., Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M., St. Leger, J.A., and Venn-Watson, S.K. 2011. Characterization of California sea lion polyomavirus 1: expansion of the known host range of the Polyomaviridae to Carnivora. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 11:987-996.

Nollens, H. H., Gulland, F.M.D., Jacobson, E. R., Hernandez, J. A., Klein, P. A., Walsh, M. T. and Condit, R. C. 2008. In vitro susceptibility of sea lion poxvirus to cidofovir. Antiviral Research. 80(1): 77-80. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.03.007

Nollens, H. H., Jacobson, E. R., Gulland, F. M. D., Beusse, D. O., Bossart, G. D., Hernandez, J. A., Klein, P. A., and Condit, R. C. 2006. Pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 42(1): 23-32.

Nollens, H.H., Ruiz, C., Walsh, M.T., Gulland, F.M.D., Bossart, G., Jensen, E.D., McBain, J.F. and Wellehan, J.F.X. 2008. Cross-reactivity between Immunoglobin G antibodies of whales and dolphins correlates with evolutionary distance. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 15(10): 1547-1554.

Nollens, H.H., Jacobson, E.R., Gulland, F.M.D. , Beusse, D.O., Bossart, G.D., Hernandez, J.A., Klein, P.A., and Condit, R.C. 2006. Pathology and preliminary characterization of a parapoxvirus isolated from a California sea lion ( Zalophus californianus ). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(1): 23-32. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-42.1.23

Norman, S.A., DiGiacomo, R.F., Gulland, F.M.D., Meschke, J.S., and Lowry, M.S. 2008. Risk factors for an outbreak of leptospirosis in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in California, 2004. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 44(4): 837-844.

Norman, Stephanie A., et al. 2011. "Maternal–fetal transmission of Cryptococcus gattii in harbor porpoise." Emerging infectious diseases 17.2: 304.

Oliver, J. S., Diehl, B.A., Lambourn, D.A., Jeffries, S., Haulena, M., Gaydos, J.K., Huggins, J.L., Calambokidis, J., and Raverty, S.A. 2010. Congenital Abnormalities observed in Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina) Pups from Washington State and British Columbia. National Marine Mammal Stranding Conference, Shepardstown, WA. April 2010.

Olson, J. K., Gaydos, J.K., Mcklveen, T., Poppenga, R., Wicinas, K., Anderson, E., and Raverty, S. In Press. Conjoined fetal twins in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). Journal of Wildlife Diseases MS # 2015-02-045. Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference, Seattle, WA, April 2014

Palacios, G., et al. 2011. Discovery of an orthoreovirus in the aborted fetus of a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Journal of General Virology 92: 2558-2565. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.032649-0

Parker, C., J. K. Gaydos, S. Raverty,A. D. McIntosh,A. L. Traxler, and P. Harner. 2013. Vertical transmission of internal parasites in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) pups in San Juan County, Washington. Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, San Francisco, CA, April 2013.

Phan, T. G., Gulland, F., Simeone, C., Deng, X., Delwart, E. 2015. Seavirus: Prototype of a new parvovirus genus in feces of a sea lion. Virus Genes 50(1): 134-136.

Prager, K.C., Greig, D.J., Alt, D.P., Galloway, R.L., Hornsby, R.L., Palmer, L.J., Soper, J., Wu, Q., Zuerner, R.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Lloyd-Smith, J.O. 2013. Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Science Direct. 164 (2013): 177-183.

Ramsdell, J.S., Gulland, F.M. 2014. Domoic acid epileptic disease. Marine Drugs. 12:1185-1207.

Ramsdell, J.S. and Zabka, T.S. 2008. Review, In utero domoic acid toxicity: a fetal basis to adult disease in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Marine Drugs 6: 262-290.

Raverty et al., 2010. Cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus gattii in Stranded Harbor (Phocoena phocoena) and Dall’s (Phocoenoides dalli) Porpoises in the Northeastern Pacific . National Marine Mammal Stranding Conference, Shepardstown, WA. April 2010. Annual Conference of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, Cape Town, South Africa, November 2007.

Raverty, S., Hanson, B., Lambourn, D., Huggins, J., Calambokidis, J., Norman, S., Gaydos, J.K., Haulena, M., Spavin, L., Ford, J., and Grigg, M., 2010. Pathology Findings of Marine Mammals Stranded within the Pacific Northwest, 1998-2000. 2010. National Marine Mammal Stranding Conference, Shepardstown, WA. April 2010. Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, Savannah, Georgia, November 2007

Raverty, S., Hanson, B., Lambourn, D., Gaydos, J.K., Haulena, M., Ford, J.K.B., Calambokidis, J., and Ross, P. An overview of emerging infectious and noninfectious diseases in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. (IWC Manuscript SC/59/D10). Annual Meeting of the International Whaling Commission . Anchorage, Alaska, May 2007.

Raverty, S., Zabek, E., Gaydos, J., Ross, P.S., Hanson, M.B., Norman, S., Calambokidis, J., Ford, J.K.B., Haulena, M., Lambourn, D., and Jeffries, S. 2007. An overview of Salmonella spp. recovered from marine mammal, wildlife and production animals at the animal health center, Abbotsford, BC from 1999 to 2006. Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Orlando, FL, May 2007

Raverty, S. A., Lambourn, D.M., Jeffries, S.J., Garner, M., Gaydos, J.K., Calambokidis, J., Miller, M.,and Conrad, P. Enzootic, sporadic and emergent disease concerns in marine mammals within the Pacific Northwest. American College of Veterinary Pathologist Annual Meeting, November 2005.

Rivera, R., Nollens, H.H., Venn-Watson, S., Gulland, F.M.D., Wellehan, J.F.X. Jr. 2010. Characterization of phylogenetically diverse astroviruses of marine mammals. 2010 (91): 166-173.

Rust, L., Gulland, F., Frame, E., Lefebvre, K. 2014. Domoic acid in milk of free living California marine mammals indicates lactational exposure occurs. Marine Mammal Science. 30 (3): 1272-1278.

Siebert, U., Gulland, F., Harder, T., Jauniaux, T., Seibel, H., Wohlsein, and Baugärtner, W. 2010. Epizootics in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina): clinical aspects.NAMMCO Scientific Publications 8:265-274.

Stoddard, R.A. , Atwill, E.R., Gulland, F.M.D ., Miller, M.A., Dabritz, H.A., Paradies, D.M., Worcester, K.R., Jang, S., Lawrence, J., Byrne, B.A., and Conrad, P.A. 2008. Risk f actors for infection with pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant fecal bacteria in northern elephant seals in California. Public Health Reports 123: 360-370.

Stoddard, R.A., DeLong, R.L., Byrne, B.A., Jang, S., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2008. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella spp. among marine animals in the Channel Islands, California. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 81: 5-11.

Stoddard, R.A., Miller, W.G., Foley, J.E., Lawrence, J., Gulland, F.M.D., Conrad, P.A., and Byrne, B.A. 2007. Campylobacter insulaenigrae isolates from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73(6): 1729-1735.

Thomas, K., Harvey, J.T., Goldstein, T., and Gulland, F. 2010. Movement, dive behavior, and survival of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) posttreatment for domoic acid toxicosis. Marine Mammal Science. 26 (1):36-52

Thompson, L., Raverty, S., Haulena, M., Gaydos, J., Mazet, J.K., Cardona, C.J., and Dao, P.T. 2007. Detection of influenza virus matrix protein by polymerase chain reaction in a neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Pacific Northwest. Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Orlando, FL, May 2007

Van Bonn, W., Montie, E., Dennison, S., Pussini, N., Cook, P., Greig, D., Barakos, J., Colegrove, K, and Gulland, F. 2011. First evidence of gas bubble disease in a live marine mammal: barotrauma in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96:89-96.

Van Bressem, M., Duigan, P.J., Banyard, A., Barbieri, M., Colegrove, K.M., De Guise, S., Di Guardo, G., Dobson, A., Domingo, M., Fauquier, D., Fernandez, A., Goldstein, T., Grenfell, B., Groch, K.R., Gulland, F., Jensen, B.A., Jepson, P.D., Hall, A., Kuiken, T., Mazzariol, S., Morris, S.E., Nielsen, O., Raga, J. A., Rowles, T.K., Saliki, J., Sierra, E., Stephens, N., Stone, B., Tomo, I., Wang, J., Waltzek, T., Wellehan, J.F.X. 2014. Cetacean morbillivirus: Current knowledge and future directions. Viruses 2014(6): 5145- 5181.

Venn-Watson, S., Benham, C., Gulland, F. M., Smith, C. R., St. Leger, J., Yochem, P., Nollens, H., Bias-Machado, U., Saliki, J., Colegrove, K., Wellehan, J. F. X. and Rivera, R. 2012. Clinical relevance of novel Otarine herpesvirus-3 in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus): lymphoma, esophageal ulcers, and strandings. Veterinary Research. 43(1), 85. doi: 10.1186/1297-9716-43-85

Volokhov, D.V., Norris, T., Rios, C., Davidson, M.K., Messick, J.B., Gulland, F.M. and Chizhikov, V.E. 2011. Novel hemotrophic mycoplasma identified in naturally infected California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Microbiology 149 (1-2): 262-268.

Wellehan Jr., J.F.X., Rivera, R., Archer, L.L., Benham, C., Muller, J.K., Colegrove, K.M., Gulland, F.M.D., St Leger, J.A., Venn-Watson, S.K., and Nollens, H.H. 2011. Characterization of California sea lion polyomavirus 1: Expansion of the known host range of the Polyomaviridae to Carnivora. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 11: 987-996. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2011.03.010

Wright, E.P., Waugh, L.F., Goldstein, T., Freeman, K.S., Kelly, T.R., Wheeler, E.A., Smith, B.R., Gulland, F.M.D. 2014. Evaluation of viruses and their association with ocular lesions in pinnipeds in rehabilitation. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 2014: 1-12.

Zuerner, Richard, L. et al. 2009. Geographical dissemination of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona seasonal migration of California sea lions. Veterinary Microbiology 137: 105-110. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.12.017

Contaminants

How we are using the information: support Tech memo on contaminants in killer whales, evaluate options for disposal of contaminated marine mammals, track overall contaminant trends in environment, better understand how contaminants affect reproduction and mortality in wild marine mammal populations

Papers and major findings/recommendations

Akmajian, A., J. Calambokidis, J.L. Huggins, and D. Lambourn. 2014. Age, region, and temporal patterns of trace elements in stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii ) from Washington inland waters. Northwestern Naturalist 95:83-91. doi: 10.1898/NWN13-26.1

El-Zein, R.A., Hastings-Smith, D.A., Ammenheuser, M.M., Treinen-Moslen, M., Gulland, F.M. , and Ward, J.B. Jr. 2006. Evaluation of two different biomarkers for use in the assessment of toxic chemical exposure in California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ). Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(1): 108-113.

Greig, D.J., Ylitalo, G.M., Wheeler, E.A., Boyd, D., Gulland, F.M.D., Yanagida, G.K., Harvey, J.T., and Hall, A.J.H. 2011. Geography and stage of development affect persistent organic pollutants in stranded and wild-caught harbor seal pups from central California. Science of the Total Environment 409: 3537-3547. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.05.047

Greig, D.J., Ylitalo, G.M., Hall, A.J., Fauquier, D.A., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2007. Transplacental transfer of organochlorines in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26(1): 37-44.

Gunderson, D.T., D.A. Duffield, T. Randall, N. Wintle, D.N. D’Alessandro, J.M. Rice, D. Shepherdson. 2013. Organochlorine contaminants in blubber from stranded marine mammals collected from the Northern Oregon and Southern Washington coasts: implications for re-introducing California condors in Oregon. Bull of Environ Contam & Toxicol. 90:269-273. DOI 10:1007/s00128-012-0940-0.

Hall, A.J., Gulland, F.M.D., Ylitalo, G.M., Greig, D.J., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2008. Changes in blubber contaminant concentrations in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) associated with weight loss and gain during rehabilitation. Environmental Science and Technology 42(11): 4181-4187.

Hansen, C.M., Hueffer, K., Gulland, F., Wells, R.S., Balmer, B.C., Castellini, J.M., O’Hara, T. 2014. Use of cellulose filter paper to quantify whole-blood mercury in two marine mammals: validation study. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 50(2); 271-278.

Harris, H.S., Facemire, P., Greig, D.J., Colegrove, K.M., Ylitalo, G.M., Yanagida, G.K., Nutter, F.B., Fleetwood, M. and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Congenital neuroglial heterotopia in a neonatal harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardsi) with evidence of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47(1): 246-254.

Harper, E. R., St. Leger, J. A., Westberg, J. A., Mazzaro, L., Schmitt, T., Reidarson, T. H., Tucker, M., Cross, D.H. and Puschner, B. 2007. Tissue heavy metal concentrations of stranded California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in Southern California. Environmental pollution. 147(3): 677-682. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.09.013

Holmes, A.L., Wise, S.S., Goertz, C.E.C., Dunn, J.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Gelatt, T., Beckmen, K.B., Burek, K., Atkinson, S., Bozza, M, Taylor, R., Zheng, T., Zhang, Y., Aboueissa, A.- M., and Wise, J.P., Sr. 2008. Metal tissue levels in Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) pups. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 1416-1421.

Randhawa, N., Gulland, F., Ylitalo, G. M., DeLong, R., & Mazet, J. A. (2015). Sentinel California sea lions provide insight into legacy organochlorine exposure trends and their association with cancer and infectious disease. One Health, 1: 37-43.

Ross, P.S., M. Noel, D. Lambourn, N. Dangerfield, J. Calambokidis, and S. Jeffries. 2013. Declining concentrations of persistent PCBs, PBDEs, PCDEs, and PCNs in harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina ) from the Salish Sea. Progress in Oceanography. DOI# 10.1016/j.pocean.2013.05.027.

Ross, P.S., Jeffries, S., Yunker, M., Addison, R.F., Ikonomou, M.G. and Calambokidis, J. 2004. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in British Columbia, Canada, and Washington State, USA, reveal a combination of local and global PCB, PCDD and PCDF signals. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(1), 157-165.

Sedlak, M.D. and Greig, D.J. 2012. Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in wildlife from an urban estuary. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 14:146-154.

Shaul, Nellie J., Dodder, Nathan G., Aluwihare, Lihini I., Mackintosh, Susan A.,. Maruya, Keith A, Chivers, Susan J., Danil, Kerri, Weller, David W. and Hoh, Eunha. 2015. Nontargeted biomonitoring of halogenated organic compounds in two ecotypes of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Southern California Bight. Environmental Science and Technology 49(3):1328-1338.

Stapleton, H.M., Dodder, N.G., Kucklick, J.R., Reddy, C.M., Schantz, M.M., Becker, P.R., Gulland, F. , Porter, B.J., and Wise, S.A. 2006. Determination of HBCD, PBDEs and MeO-BDEs in California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) stranded between 1993 and 2003. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(5): 522-531.

Van Hoomissen, S., Gulland, F.M.D., Greig, D.J., Castellini, J.M., O'Hara, T.M. 2015. Blood and hair mercury concentrations in the Pacific harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) pup: Associations with neurodevelopmental outcomes. EcoHealth 12(3).

Wintle, Nathan JP, et al. 2011. Total mercury in stranded marine mammals from the Oregon and southern Washington coasts. Marine Mammal Science 27.4: E268- E278. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2010.00461.x Proceedings of the 18th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Quebec City, QC, Canada. 12 Oct-16 Oct. 2009.

Wise, S.S., Shaffiey, F., LaCerte, C., Goertz, C.E.C., Dunn, J.L., Gulland, F.M.D., Aboueissa, A., Zheng, T. and J.P. Wise, Sr. 2009. Particulate and soluble hexavalent chromium are cytotoxic and genotoxic to Steller sea lion lung cells. Aquatic Toxicology. 91: 329-335.

Zabka, T.S., Haulena, M. , Puschner, B., Gulland, F.M.D. , Conrad, P.A., and Lowenstine, L.J. 2006. Acute lead toxicosis in a harbor seal ( Phoca vitulina richardsi ) consequent to ingestion of a lead fishing sinker. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42(3): 651-657.

Causes of Death/ Human Interaction

How we are using the information: biological opinions, SARs, ongoing efforts to evaluate and mitigate large whale ship strike risk, document entanglements and how to reduce future entanglement risks, emerging diseases, monitoring population dynamics and disease prevalence.

Papers and major findings/recommendations

Akmajian, Adrianne M., et al. 2012. Mortality Related to Spotted Ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei) in Pacific Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) in Washington State. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48.4: 1057-1062. doi: 10.7589/2011-12-348

Berman-Kowalewski, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Wilkin, S., Calambokidis, J., Mate, B., Cordaro, J., Rotstein, D., St. Leger, J., Collins, P., Fahy, K., and Dover, S. 2010. Association between Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) Mortality and Ship Strikes along the California Coast. Aquatic Mammals 36 (1) 59-66, doi: 10.1578/AM.36.1.2010.59 .

Brock, K.A., et al. 2016 Uterine hydrops in a pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps). IAAAM.

Clarke, L. Z., Plourde, I.A., Gaydos, J.K., and Olson, J.K. In press. Predation of a harbor seal pup (Phoca vitulina) by an American Mink (Neovison vison) in the Salish Sea. Northwest Naturalist MS# NWN15-32

Cox, T.M., Ragen, T.J., Read, A.J., Vos, E., Baird, R.W., Balcomb, K., Barlow, J., Caldwell, J., Cranford, T., Crum, L., D'Amico, A., D'Spain, G., Fernandez, A., Finneran, J., Gentry, R., Gerth, W., Gulland, F., Hildebrand, J., Houser, D., Hullar, T., Jepson, P.D., Ketten, D., MacLeod, C.D., Miller, P., Moore, S., Mountain, D.C., Palka, D., Ponganis, P., Rommel, S., Rowles, T., Taylor, B., Tyack, P., Wartzok, D., Gisiner, R., Mead, J., and Benner, L. 2006. Understanding the impacts of anthropogenic sound on beaked whales. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 7(3): 177-187.

D’Alessandro, D., Duffield, D., Chandler, K., Boothe, T., Rice, J.M. 2016. Human interaction challenges for the Northern Oregon/Southern Washington Marine Mammal Stranding Program. 2016 National Marine Animal Health and Stranding Network Conference. Sept 6-9. Shepherdstown, WV.

Danil, K. and St Leger, J.A. 2011 Seabird and Dolphin Mortality Associated with Underwater Detonation Exercises. Marine Technology Society Journal 45(6): 89-95.

Danil K., Chivers SJ, Carretta JV. 2011. Human interaction in stranded San Diego County cetaceans between 2001 and 2010. Southern California Marine Mammal Workshop, Newport Beach, CA, January 21-22. http://swfsc.noaa.gov/uploadedFiles/Divisions/PRD/Programs/Photogrammetry/HI2001- 2010_Poster.pdf

Dau, B. K., Gilardi, K.V., Gulland, F. M. D., Higgins, A., Holcomb, J. B., St. Leger, J. and Ziccardi, M. H. 2009. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 45(2): 355-362. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-45.2.355

Douglas, Annie B., et al. 2008. Incidence of ship strikes of large whales in Washington State. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 88.06: 1121-1132. doi: 10.1017/S0025315408000295

Gaydos, J. K., R. W. Osborne, S. Raverty, and R. Baird. 2005. Suspected surplus killing of harbor seal pups by killer whales. Northwestern Naturalist 86: 150-154. doi: 10.1898/1051-1733(2005)086[0150:SSKOHS]2.0.CO;2

Huggins, J.L., S.A. Raverty, S.A. Norman, J. Calambokidis, J.K. Gaydos, D.A. Duffield, Lambourn, D.A., Rice, J.M., Hanson, B., Wilkinson, K., Norberg, B. and Barre, L. 2015. Increased harbor porpoise mortality in the Pacific Northwest, USA: understanding when higher levels may be normal. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 115:93-102. Annual Conference of the Society for Marine Mammalogy, Cape Town, South Africa, November 2007.

Huggins, J.L., Leahy, C.L., Calambokidis, J., Lambourn, D., Jeffries, S.J., Norman, S.A., Raverty, S. 2013. Causes and patterns of harbor seal ( Phoca vitulina ) mortality at Smith Island, Washington, 2004-2010. Northwestern Naturalist 94:198-208.

Jacobsen, J.K., Massey, L., and Gulland, F. 2010. Fatal ingestion of floating marine debris by two sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Marine Pollution Bulletin 60:765- 767.

Jepson, PD., Barbieri M, Barco SG, Bernaldo de Quiros, Bogomolni A, Danil K, and Rowles T. 2013. Peracute underwater entrapment of pinnipeds and cetaceans. In Criteria and case definitions for serious injury and death of pinnipeds and cetaceans caused by anthropogenic trauma. Edited by Moore MJ, van der Hoop J, Barco SG, Costidis AM, Gulland FM, Jepson PD, Moore KT, Raverty S and McLellan WA. . Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 103: 235-39 doi: 10.3354/dao02566

Lambourn, D., Raverty, S., Jeffries, S., Calambokidis, J., Garner, M., Gaydos, J., Miller, M., and Conrad, P. Causes of Mortality in Pinnipeds of Washington State during 2004. 2005 Puget Sound Georgia Basin Research Conference, Seattle, WA, March 2005.

Lee, K., and Duffield, D. 2013. GIS analysis of California sea lion and Steller sea lion mortality on the Oregon and southern Washington coasts, 2006-2012. 20th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Dec. 9-13, Dunedin, NZ.

Melin, S.R., Orr, A.J., Harris, J.D., Laake, J.L., DeLong, R.L., Gulland, F.M.D., and Stoudt, S. 2010. Unprecedented mortality of California sea lion pups associated with anomalous oceanographic conditions along the central California coast in 2009. CalCOFI Reports. 51:182-194.

Moore, M.J., van der Hoop, J., Barco, S. G., Costidis, A. M., Gulland, F. M., Jepson, P.D., Moore, K. T., Raverty, S., McLellan, W. A. 2013. Criteria and case definitions for serious injury and death of pinnepeds and cetaceans caused by anthropogenic trauma. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. Vol. 103: 229-264.

Moore K, Gulland F, Berman M, Cabrera E, Danil K, Hall L. 2013. Gunshot injuries of pinnipeds and cetaceans. In Criteria and case definitions for serious injury and death of pinnipeds and cetaceans caused by anthropogenic trauma. Edited by Moore MJ, Van der Hoop J, Barco SG, Costidis AM, Gulland FM, Jepson PD, Moore KT, Raverty S and McLellan WA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 103: 256-62 doi: 10.3354/dao02566

Moore, E., Lyday, S., Roletto, J., Litle, K., Parrish, J.K., Nevins, H., Harvey, J., Mortenson, J., Greig, D., Piazza, M., Hermace, A., Lee, D., Adams, D., Allen, S., and Kell, S. 2009. Entanglements of marine mammals and seabirds in central California and the north-west coast of the United States 2001-2005. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 58: 1045-1051.

Olson, J. K. and Gaydos, J. K. 2016. Prevalence of propeller strike related mortality in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from San Juan County, WA

Maclean R. A., Imai D., Dold, C., Haulena, M. and Gulland, F. M. D. 2008. Persistent right aortic arch and cribiform plate aplasia in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44(2): 499-504. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-44.2.499

Raverty, S., Huggins, J., Calambokidis, J., Wilkinson, K., Barre, L., Norberg, B., Lambourn, D., Gaydos, J., Norman, S., Rice, J., Duffield, D., Ford, J., Hanson, B. 2008 Post mortem findings of an unusual mortality event of harbor porpoises in the northeastern Pacific, 2006-2007. Presented to the American College of Veterinary Pathologists Meeting, November, 2008.

Raverty, S., B. Hanson, S. Norman, A. Hall, and J. Gaydos. 2005. Post mortem findings in small cetacean strandings in the Pacific Northwest, 1999-2004. Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre Newsletter 11(1): 12.

Rice, J.M, Duffield, D.A. and D’Alessandro, D. 2016. Morbidity and mortality in Marine Mammals along the Oregon and Southern Washington coasts, 2006-2015. 2016 National Marine Animal Health and Stranding Network Conference. Sept 6-9. Shepherdstown, WV. 21st Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Dec. 13-18. San Francisco, CA

Rice, J.M., Duffield, D.A., Barros, N.B., D’Alessandro, D. 2010. Morbidity and mortality in marine mammals along the Oregon and Southern Washington coasts. National Marine Animal Health and Stranding Network Conference. April 6-9. Shepherdstown, West Virginia. West Coast Marine Mammal Stranding Network Regional Meeting, San Pedro, CA March 24, 2015. Poster presentation to be given to the 18th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Quebec City, Canada, Oct. 2009.

Rice, J.M. A capture cage for entangled sea lions. Poster presentation given at the National Marine Animal Health and Stranding Network Conference, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, April 5-9, 2010.

Rice, J.M., Duffield, D.A., and Barros, N.B. 2009. Morbidity and mortality in marine mammals along the Oregon and southern Washington coasts. 18th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. 12-16 Oct. Quebec City, QC, Canada.

St. Leger, J. and Nilson, E. 2014. Intestinal atresia in a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) and a review of congenital conditions of the species. Aquatic Mammals 40(2): 201-206. doi: 10.1578/AM.40.2.2014.207

Tinker M.T., B.B. Hatfield, M.D. Harris, and J.A. Ames. 2015. Dramatic increase in sea otter mortality from white sharks in California. Marine Mammal Science 32 (1) 309-326; doi: 10.1111/mms.12261

Whitaker, A.R. 2008. The Role of Human Predation in the Structuring of Prehistoric Prey Populations in Northwestern California. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis. http://hdl.handle.net/1957/27417

Williams, R., Gero, S., Bejder, L., Calambokidis, J., Kraus, S.D., Lusseau, D., Read, A.J., and Robbins, J. 2011. Underestimating the damage: interpreting cetacean carcass recoveries in the context of the Deepwater Horizon/BP incident. Conservation Letters 4: 228-233. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00168.x

Unusual Mortality Events

How we are using the information: Evaluate past and future UMEs, evaluate environmental factors including climate change, harmful algal blooms/biotoxins, limited food source; other causes of UME’s include infections, human interactions, and malnutrition). Contribute to national perspective on UMEs throughout the United States and affecting all marine mammal groups.

Papers and major findings/recommendations

Gulland, F. 2013. Gray whale strandings, health evaluations and an unusual mortality event in 1999-2000. Journal of the American Cetacean Society. 42(1): 47-51.

Huggins, Jessica L., et al. 2015. Increased harbor porpoise mortality in the Pacific Northwest, USA: understanding when higher levels may be normal. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 115:93-102. doi: 10.3354/dao02887

Lambourn, D, et al. 2009. 2007-2009 Pacific Northwest Guadalupe Fur Seal (Arctocephalus townsendi) Unusual Mortality Event (UME) Summary Report. Oral presentation given to the National Marine Animal Health and Stranding Network Conference, Shepherdstown, West Virginia, April 5-9, 2010.

Norman, S.A., Huggins, J., Carpenter, T.E., Case, J.T., Lambourn, D.M., Rice, J., Calambokidis, J., Gaydon, J., Hanson, B., Duffield, D.A., et al. 2012. The application of GIS and spatiotemporal analyses to investigations of unusual marine mammal strandings and mortality events. Marine Mammal Science 28(3):E251-E266. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00507.x

Raverty, S., J. Huggins, J. Calambokidis, K. Wilkinson, L. Barre, B. Norberg, D. Lambourn, J. Gaydos, S. Norman, J. Rice, D. Duffield, J. Ford, and B. Hanson. 2008. Post mortem findings of an unusual mortality event of harbor porpoises in the Northeastern Pacific, 2006-2007. 2008 Meeting of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, San Antonio, Texas, November 2008.

Torres de la Riva, G., Kreuder Johnson, C., Gulland, F.M.D., Langlois, G.W., Heyning, J.E., Rowles, T.K., and Mazet, J.A.K. 2009. Association of an unusual marine mammal mortality event with Pseudo-nitzschia spp. blooms along the southern California coastline. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 45(1): 109-121.

Wilkin, S.M., J. Cordaro, F. M. D. Gulland, E. Wheeler, R. Dunkin, T. Sigler, D. Casper, M. Berman, M. Flannery, S. Fire, Z. Wang, K. Colegrove, and J. Baker. 2012. An Unusual Mortality Event of Harbor Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) Off Central California: Increase in Blunt Trauma rather than an Epizootic. Aquatic Mammals 38 (3) 301-310; doi: 10.1578/AM.38.3.2012.301

Southern Resident Killer Whales

How we are using the information: funding to develop and implement killer whale disease testing and necropsy protocol (updated 2014), inform SRKW health workshop and priorities (2015-current), better understand distribution/range and make more informed decisions for critical habitat.

Papers and major findings/recommendations

Barbieri, Michelle M., et al. 2013. Spatial and temporal analysis of killer whale (Orcinus orca) strandings in the North Pacific Ocean and the benefits of a coordinated stranding response protocol. Marine Mammal Science 29.4: E448-E462. doi: 10.1111/mms.12044

D’Alessandro, D., Duffield, D.A., Raverty, S., Gaydos, J.K, Lambourn, D., Huggins, J., Calambokidis, J., Mcklveen, T., Dennison, S., Norberg, B., Wilkinson, K., Barre, L., Hanson,B., Foreman, P., Traxler, A., Brubaker, H. 2013. Stranding evaluation of southern resident killer whale L-112, by the Northwest Marine Mammal Stranding Network. 20th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals. Dec. 9-13, Dunedin, NZ.

Duffield, D., Gaydos, J.J., Raverty, S., Wilkinson, K., Norberg, B., Barre, L., Hanson, B., Foreman, P., Traxler, A., Lambourn, D., Huggins, J., Calambokidis, J., McKlveen, T., Dennison, S., Brubaker, H. 2015. Wild Animal Mortality Investigation: Southern Resident Killer Whale L-112. Final Report. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC.

Duffield, D.A., D’Alessandro, D., Raverty, S., Gaydos, J.K., Lambourn, D., Huggins, J., Calambokidis, J., Mcklveen, T., Dennison, S., Norberg, B., Wilkinson, K., Barre, L., Hanson, B., Foreman, P., Traxler, A., Brubaker, H. 2013. Stranding evaluation of southern resident killer whale L-112, by the Northwest Marine Mammal Stranding Network. 44th Annual IAAAM Conference. April 21-26. Sausalito, CA

Gaydos, Joseph K., et al. 2004. Evaluating potential infectious disease threats for southern resident killer whales, Orcinus orca : a model for endangered species. Biological Conservation 117.3 : 253-262. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2003.07.004

Raverty, S., Duffield, D., Hanson, B., Barre, L., Lambourn, D., Huggins, J., Goldstein, T., Gaydos, J. 2012. Presumptive congenital gastric herniation in a neonatal killer whale (Orcinus orca) stranded in Washington, USA. 43rd Annual IAAAM Conference. May 12-16. Atlanta, GA.

Raverty, S. A., Gaydos, J.K., Hanson, B.,and Wong, S. 2005. An Overview of Post Mortem Findings of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) Stranded 1994-2003. American College of Veterinary Pathologist Annual Meeting, November 2005.

Efficacy of Rehabilitation

How we are using the information: support for limited rehab policies, conduct post-release monitoring of rehabilitated animals to evaluate the success of the rehabilitation process (this data is collected via the rehabilitation disposition form and continued research studies). Rehabilitation of marine mammals allows Stranding Network partners to receive handling and rehabilitation experience especially if needed to intervene and rehabilitate an ESA listed species.

Papers and major findings/recommendations

Fravel, V.A., Van Bonn, W., Gulland, F., Rios, C., Fahlman, A., Graham, J.L., Havel, P.J. (2016). Intraperitoneal dextrose administration as an alternative emergency treatment for hypoglycemic yearling California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 47(1): 76-82.

Gaydos, Joseph K., et al. 2012. "Postrelease movement of rehabilitated harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) pups compared with cohort ‐matched wild seal pups." Marine Mammal Science 29.3: E282-E294. doi: 10.1111/mms.12002

Gaydos, J. K., Norman, S.A., Lambourn, D., Jeffries, S., Raverty, S., Leslie, M.,Lockwood, S., DeGhetto, D., Huckabee, J., Ewalt, D., Whaley, J., and Rowles, T. 2005. Should harbor seals with antibodies to Brucella be rehabilitated? Proceedings of the 2005 Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine, Seward, AK, May 2005.

Groner, M.L., Maynard, J., Breyta, R., Carnegie, R.B., Dobson, A., Friedman, C.S., Froelich, B., Garren, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Heron, S.F., Noble, R.T., Revie, C.W., Shields, J.D., Vanderstichel, R., Weil, E., Wyllie-Echeverria, S., Harvell, C.D. 2016. Managing Marine Disease Emergencies in an Era of Rapid Change. Philosophical Transactions Royal Society B. 371: 20150364

Lynn, B.L., Reichmuth, C., Schusterman, R.J., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2010. Filial imprinting in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus).Aquatic Mammals. 36(1):79-83.

Moore, M., Early, G., Touhey, K., Barco, S., Gulland, F., and Wells, R. 2007. Rehabilitation and release of marine mammals in the United States: risks and benefits.Marine Mammal Science 23(4): 731-750.

Norris, T.A., Littnan, C.L., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2011. Evaluation of the Captive Care and Post- Release Behavior and Survival of Seven Juvenile Female Hawaiian Monk Seals. Aquatic Mammals 37(3):342-353.

Schofield, T.D., Levine, G., Gulland, F.M.D., Littnan, C.L. and Colitz, C.M.H. 2011. The First Successful Hand-Rearing of a Neonate Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi) and Post-Release Management Challenges. Aquatic Mammals 37(3): 354-359.

Stoddard, R.A., Atwill, E.R., Conrad, P.A., Byrne, B.A., Jang, S., Lawrence, J., McCowan, B., and Gulland, F.M.D. 2009. The effects of rehabilitation of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) on antimicrobial resistance of commensal Escherichia coli. Veterinary Microbiology. 133: 264-271.

Biology (Diet, Movement, Ecology, Conservation)

Papers and major findings/recommendations

Allen, Sarah with M. Flannery. “Orcas of the California Coast.” Bay Nature January to March 2014: 24-31. Print.

Newsome, S.D., J. D. Yeakel, P.V. Wheatley, and M.T. Tinker. 2012. Tools for quantifying isotopic niche space and dietary variation at the individual and population level. Journal of Mammalogy: 93 (2) 329-341; doi: 10.1644/11-MAMM-S-187.1

Newsome, S.D., P.L. Koch, M.A. Etnier, and D. Aurioles-Gamboa. 2006. Using carbon and nitrogen isotope values to investigate maternal strategies in northeast Pacific Otariids. Marine Mammal Science 22(3):556-572; doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2006.00043.x

Parsons, E.C.M., Baulch, S., Bechshoft, T., Baellazzi, G., Bouchet, P., Cosentino, A.M., Goddard-Codding, C.A.J., Gulland, F., Hoffmann-Kuhnt, M., Hoyt, E., Livermore, S., MacLeod, C.D., Matrai, E., Munger, L., Ochiai, M., Peyman, A., Recalde-Salas, A., Regnery, R., Rojas-Bracho, L., Salgado-Kent, C.P., Slooten, E., Wang, J.Y., Wilson, S.C., Wright, A.J., Young, S., Zwamborn, E., Sutherland, W.J. 2015. Key research questions of global importance for cetacean conservation. Endanger Species Research. 27: 113-118.

Whitaker, A.R. and W.R. Hildebrandt. 2011. Why Were Northern Fur Seals Spared in Northern California? A Cultural and Archaeological Explanation. In The Archaeology and Historical Ecology of Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Otters of the North Pacific, edited by Torben Rick and Todd Braje, pp. 197-219. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA; doi: 10.1525/California/9780520267268.001.0001